A castle and mercantile settlement are known from 1050, the latter obtaining its charter as a town in the year 1200. From 1219 until 1806 Nuremberg was a free Imperial town. The flourishing of the medieval town reached its apex at the turn of the 16th century, when it became an important trading centre.
In 1614, Comenius returned from his studies in Germany to Moravia via Nuremberg and Prague. In 1658 the Nuremberg publisher Michael Endter issued Comenius’ language textbook, the Orbis sensualium pictus. Endter’s printing house issues Comenius’ tracts repeatedly in new editions until 1780.